Monef Schools is also into poultry production. The Monef Schools poultry farm serves dual purposes, commercial output and training of students. Periodically students are taken to the poultry farm for hands on agriculture practical.
Poultry refers to a group of birds reared for food and other purposes. These include: domestic fowl, turkey, goose, guinea fowl and duck. These birds are reared mainly for meat, egg and manure. They are non-ruminants.
TERMS USED IN POULTRY
Cock – Male fowl above below one year of age.
Cockerel – Male fowl below one year of age.
Hen – Female fowl above one year of age.
Pullet – Female fowl below one year of age.
Chick – A young fowl (0 – 6 weeks old).
Capon – A castrated male fowl.
Caponization – Process of castration in fowl.
Treading – Act of mating in fowl.
Grower – Fowl between (7 – 19 weeks of age).
Layer – Female fowl over 20 weeks of age that can lay eggs.
Broiler – Fowl reared for meat.
Clutch – A group of young chicks
Flock – A group of fowls.
Chicken – Meat of fowl.
BREEDS OF DOMESTIC FOWL
The various breeds of fowls can be classified into three main groups:
- Egg producers example while leghorn.
- Meat producers, example Sussex.
- The dual purpose example (both meat and egg producers), example Rhode Island Red.
POULTRY EQUIPMENT AND THEIR MAIN USE
|Batter cage||Housing of mainly layers|
|Candler||Detecting unfertile eggs|
|Folus||For housing poultry birds|
|Incubation||Hatching fertile eggs|
SYSTEM OF POULTRY MANAGEMENT
There are three systems of poultry management. The system of management defines the extents to which birds are exposed to sunshine, pasture and housing pattern.These aid:
- Extensive management
- Semi-intensive management
- Intensive systems
- Free range system
Under this system, the domestic fowls are allowed to roan about in search of food and water. There are no proper housing, care and feeding for these birds. Unlimited grassland is available to the birds. The capital investment is small birds. The capital investment is small and the birds population per hectare of land is minimal and production is usually very low. Example of the extensive system of rearing poultry is the free range system.
The Semi-Intensive System s mid-way between intensive and extensive system. The birds are housed in a foxed building but are allowed to move about within a fenced area during the day. Their buildings are made up of wood and are raised above the ground with wire netting on the floor to permit easy dropping of faeces. A good example of the Semi-Intensive System is the fold unit system.
Under this system, the birds are confined within the building and the not allowed to move out. It prevents the birds from having access to pasture and sunshine. There is high stocking density which implies a closer contact among the birds. Feeds, water and all medications are provided for the birds.
Two examples of the intensive system of poultry management are:
- Deep litter system
- Battery cage system
IMPORTANCE OF POULTRY AND POULTRY PRODUCT
Poultry plays very important role for mankind through food supply, income and employment generation, providing raw materials to some industries, facilitating research works etc. the direct or indirect contribution of poultry industry is summarized below.
- As a Source of food:
- Poultry meat and eggs are good source of vitamins and minerals.
- Poor people can get meat and eggs easily from their reared poultry than from other sources.
- Poultry meat and eggs supply rich protein and easily cooked dishes to the students.
- Human directly consumes poultry meat and eggs e.g. meat as curry, meatball, roast, toast etc or with other food products like chicken chips, chicken rolls etc.
Egg is consumed directly as eggs omelet, poased eggs etc or with products like egg salad, beverages etc.
- Egg: In vaccine preparation, inedible eggs used as animal feed and fertilizers.
- Egg White: Used in pharmaceuticals, paints, varnishes, adhesives, printer’s ink, photography, bookbinding, leather tanning, semen preservation, wine clarification and textile dyeing.
- Egg Yolk: Used in making cake mixed, soap, paints, shampoos, leather finishing and bookbinding.
- Feathers: Used in animal feed, fertilizers, millinery goods, pillows, cushions, mattresses, dusters and as insulating materials.
- Endocrine Glands: Used in many biological products.
Poultry farming helps in alleviating poverty through creating employment opportunity for literate are illiterate unemployed youth and old. At present 5 million of people are engaged in poultry sector in Bangladesh. However, poultry is undoubtedly a blessing for human to live